What's up in

# bootstrap

## Latest Articles

### New Proof Distinguishes Mysterious and Powerful ‘Modular Forms’

Using “refreshingly old” tools, mathematicians resolved a 50-year-old conjecture about how to categorize important functions called modular forms, with consequences for number theory and theoretical physics.

### In a Numerical Coincidence, Some See Evidence for String Theory

In a quest to map out a quantum theory of gravity, researchers have used logical rules to calculate how much Einstein’s theory must change. The result matches string theory perfectly.

### Laws of Logic Lead to New Restrictions on the Big Bang

Physicists are translating commonsense principles into strict mathematical constraints on how our universe must have behaved at the beginning of time.

### Mathematicians Prove 2D Version of Quantum Gravity Really Works

In three towering papers, a team of mathematicians has worked out the details of Liouville quantum field theory, a two-dimensional model of quantum gravity.

### Why the Laws of Physics Are Inevitable

By considering simple symmetries, physicists working on the “bootstrap” can rediscover the basic form of the known forces that shape the universe.

### Cosmic Triangles Open a Window to the Origin of Time

A close look at fundamental symmetries has exposed hidden patterns in the universe. Physicists think that those same symmetries may also reveal time’s original secret.

### Physicists Uncover Geometric ‘Theory Space’

A decades-old method called the “bootstrap” is enabling new discoveries about the geometry underlying all quantum theories.