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# Computer Science

## Latest Articles

### What Is Machine Learning?

Neural networks and other forms of machine learning ultimately learn by trial and error, one improvement at a time.

### With Fifth Busy Beaver, Researchers Approach Computation’s Limits

After decades of uncertainty, a motley team of programmers has proved precisely how complicated simple computer programs can get.

### The Question of What’s Fair Illuminates the Question of What’s Hard

Computational complexity theorists have discovered a surprising new way to understand what makes certain problems hard.

### Computation Is All Around Us, and You Can See It if You Try

Computer scientist Lance Fortnow writes that by embracing the computations that surround us, we can begin to understand and tame our seemingly random world.

### Cryptographers Discover a New Foundation for Quantum Secrecy

Researchers have proved that secure quantum encryption is possible in a world without hard problems.

### AI Needs Enormous Computing Power. Could Light-Based Chips Help?

Optical neural networks, which use photons instead of electrons, have advantages over traditional systems. They also face major obstacles.

### Computer Scientists Invent an Efficient New Way to Count

By making use of randomness, a team has created a simple algorithm for estimating large numbers of distinct objects in a stream of data.

### Game Theory Can Make AI More Correct and Efficient

Researchers are drawing on ideas from game theory to improve large language models and make them more consistent.

### Scientists Find a Fast Way to Describe Quantum Systems

After years of false starts, a team of computer scientists has found a way to efficiently deduce the Hamiltonian of a physical system at any constant temperature.