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# number theory

## Latest Articles

### Behold Modular Forms, the ‘Fifth Fundamental Operation’ of Math

Modular forms are one of the most beautiful and mysterious objects in mathematics. What are they?

### A Tower of Conjectures That Rests Upon a Needle

On its surface, the Kakeya conjecture is a simple statement about rotating needles. But it underlies a wealth of mathematics.

### Why Mathematical Proof Is a Social Compact

Number theorist Andrew Granville on what mathematics really is — and why objectivity is never quite within reach.

### Two Students Unravel a Widely Believed Math Conjecture

Mathematicians thought they were on the cusp of proving a conjecture about the ancient structures known as Apollonian circles. But a summer project would lead to its downfall.

### Elliptic Curves Yield Their Secrets in a New Number System

Ana Caraiani and James Newton have extended an important result in number theory to the imaginary realm.

### Why Mathematicians Re-Prove What They Already Know

It’s been known for thousands of years that the primes go on forever, but new proofs give fresh insights into how theorems depend on one another.

### New Proof Distinguishes Mysterious and Powerful ‘Modular Forms’

Using “refreshingly old” tools, mathematicians resolved a 50-year-old conjecture about how to categorize important functions called modular forms, with consequences for number theory and theoretical physics.

### Probability and Number Theory Collide — in a Moment

Mathematicians are taking ideas developed to study random numbers and applying them to a broad range of categories.

### The Year in Math

Four Fields Medals were awarded for major breakthroughs in geometry, combinatorics, statistical physics and number theory, even as mathematicians continued to wrestle with how computers are changing the discipline.