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# Quantized Columns

## Latest Articles

### How Many Microbes Does It Take to Make You Sick?

Exposure to a virus isn’t an all-or-nothing proposition. The concept of “infectious dose” suggests ways to keep ourselves safer from harm.

### The Hidden Brain Connections Between Our Hands and Tongues

Sticking out your tongue while doing delicate work with your hands reveals a history of evolutionary relationships.

### How Genetic Surprises Complicate the Old Doctrine of DNA

For over a century, biologists have had to contend with a complicated picture of genetics, which they’ve only recently begun to understand.

### Math That Lets You Think Locally but Act Globally

Knowing a little about the local connections on flight maps and other networks can reveal a lot about a system’s global structure.

### How Math Achieved Transcendence

Transcendental numbers include famous examples like e and π, but it took mathematicians centuries to understand them.

### Math Patterns That Go On Forever but Never Repeat

Simple math can help explain the complexities of the newly discovered aperiodic monotile.

### Why the Brain’s Connections to the Body Are Crisscrossed

In all bilaterally symmetrical animals, from humans down to simple worms, nerves cross from one side of the body to the opposite side of the brain. Geometry may explain why.

### The Colorful Problem That Has Long Frustrated Mathematicians

The four-color problem is simple to explain, but its complex proof continues to be both celebrated and despised.

### The Symmetry That Makes Solving Math Equations Easy

Learn why the quadratic formula works and why quadratics are easier to solve than cubics.