Carrie Arnold

Contributing Writer

Hydrodynamics and competition guide the architectural design of biofilm fortresses.
microbiology

Building Codes for Bacterial Cities

Hydrodynamics and competition guide the architectural design of biofilm fortresses.

Examine evolution over the course of years or centuries, and you’ll find that it progresses much more quickly than it does over geologic time.
evolution

Evolution Runs Faster on Short Timescales

Examine evolution over the course of years or centuries, and you’ll find that it progresses much more quickly than it does over geologic time.

Researchers have used the gene-editing tool CRISPR to manipulate the way that DNA coils up inside the cell — another step in the quest to understand how the genome’s 3-D structure impacts its function.
genomics

Genetic Architects Untwist DNA’s Turns

Researchers have used the gene-editing tool CRISPR to manipulate the way that DNA coils up inside the cell — another step in the quest to understand how the genome’s 3-D structure impacts its function.

Only a few genetic changes were enough to change an ordinary stomach bug into the bacteria responsible for the plague.
Biology

The Mutant Genes Behind the Black Death

Only a few genetic changes were enough to change an ordinary stomach bug into the bacteria responsible for the plague.

A new understanding of viral swarms is helping researchers predict how viruses will evolve and where disease is likely to spread.
Biology

How Mutant Viral Swarms Spread Disease

A new understanding of viral swarms is helping researchers predict how viruses will evolve and where disease is likely to spread.

Newly discovered specimens support a more ancient origin for viruses, perhaps all the way back to the origins of life.
origins of life

Hints of Life’s Start Found in a Giant Virus

Newly discovered specimens support a more ancient origin for viruses, perhaps all the way back to the origins of life.

A new theory suggests that cooperation between a host and its microbes may be a significant evolutionary force.
evolution

Evolving With a Little Help From Our Friends

A new theory suggests that cooperation between a host and its microbes may be a significant evolutionary force.

About the author

Carrie Arnold is a freelance health and science writer living in Virginia. She covers all aspects of the living world for publications like National Geographic, Scientific American, Discover, New Scientist and Women’s Health.