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A recent experiment shows how quantum mechanics can make heat flow from a cold body to a hot one, an apparent (though not real) violation of the second law of thermodynamics.
Using a brain-computer interface, scientists are beginning to learn why learning is hard.
A simple, step-by-step breakdown of two “perfect” math proofs.
For decades, researchers have commonly assumed that higher oxygen levels led to the sudden diversification of animal life 540 million years ago. But one iconoclast argues the opposite: that new animal behaviors raised oxygen levels and remade the environment.
Generations of researchers have pursued his “Langlands program,” which seeks to create a grand unified theory of mathematics.
The renowned British physicist, who died at 76, left behind a riddle that could eventually lead his successors to the theory of quantum gravity.
By 1913, Albert Einstein had nearly completed general relativity. But a simple mistake set him on a tortured, two-year reconsideration of his theory. Today, mathematicians still grapple with the issues he confronted.
The amount of energy infusing empty space seems too small to explain without a multiverse. But physicists have at least one alternative left to explore.