Studies suggest that epigenetics allows some learned adaptive responses to be passed down to new generations. The question is how.
Cells in symbiotic partnership, sometimes nested one within the other and functioning like organelles, can borrow from their host’s genes to complete their own metabolic pathways.
Some viruses can replicate without infecting any one cell with all their genes.
If highly repetitive gene-regulating sequences in DNA are easily lost, that may explain why some adaptations evolve quickly and repeatedly.
For 50 years, evolutionary theory has emphasized the importance of neutral mutations rather than adaptive ones at the level of DNA. Real genomic data challenges that assumption.
Elastic springs help tiny animals stay fast and strong. New work is finding what size critters must be to benefit from the springs.
Long-overlooked “tunneling nanotubes” and other bridges between cells act as conduits for sharing RNA, proteins or even whole organelles.