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# explainers

## Latest Articles

### How to Understand COVID-19 Variants and Their Effects on Vaccines

Researchers are tracking the different strains of SARS-CoV-2 and studying how they spread through our population and our bodies.

### Topology 101: The Hole Truth

The relationships among the properties of flexible shapes have fascinated mathematicians for centuries.

### How Claude Shannon Invented the Future

Today’s information age is only possible thanks to the groundbreaking work of a lone genius.

### An Infinite Universe of Number Systems

The p-adics form an infinite collection of number systems based on prime numbers. They’re at the heart of modern number theory.

### How Mathematical ‘Hocus-Pocus’ Saved Particle Physics

Renormalization has become perhaps the single most important advance in theoretical physics in 50 years.

### How Physics Found a Geometric Structure for Math to Play With

Symplectic geometry is a relatively new field with implications for much of modern mathematics. Here’s what it’s all about.

### Mathematicians Will Never Stop Proving the Prime Number Theorem

Why do mathematicians enjoy proving the same results in different ways?

### How Earth’s Climate Changes Naturally (and Why Things Are Different Now)

Earth’s climate has fluctuated through deep time, pushed by these 10 different causes. Here’s how each compares with modern climate change.

### How Gödel’s Proof Works

His incompleteness theorems destroyed the search for a mathematical theory of everything. Nearly a century later, we’re still coming to grips with the consequences.