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# History of science

## Latest Articles

### How (Relatively) Simple Symmetries Underlie Our Expanding Universe

Although Einstein’s theory of space-time seems more complicated than Newtonian physics, it greatly simplified the mathematical description of the universe.

### The Hidden Heroines of Chaos

Two women programmers played a pivotal role in the birth of chaos theory. Their previously untold story illustrates the changing status of computation in science.

### How Feynman Diagrams Revolutionized Physics

In the late 1940s, Richard Feynman invented a visual tool for simplifying particle calculations that forever changed theoretical physics.

### The Strange Numbers That Birthed Modern Algebra

The 19th-century discovery of numbers called “quaternions” gave mathematicians a way to describe rotations in space, forever changing physics and math.

### How Einstein Lost His Bearings, and With Them, General Relativity

By 1913, Albert Einstein had nearly completed general relativity. But a simple mistake set him on a tortured, two-year reconsideration of his theory. Today, mathematicians still grapple with the issues he confronted.

### How Feynman Diagrams Almost Saved Space

Richard Feynman's famous diagrams weren’t just a way to do calculations. They represented a deep shift in thinking about how the universe is put together.

### Deep Secrets and the Thrill of Discovery

The biologist Sean B. Carroll rediscovers the scientific thrill of an unexpected revelation.

### Time’s (Almost) Reversible Arrow

The irreversibility of time may be a clue as to what makes up the universe’s dark matter.

### Science’s Path From Myth to Multiverse

In his latest book, the Nobel Prize winner Steven Weinberg explores how science made the modern world, and where it might take us from here.