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# history of science

## Latest Articles

### What Is Analog Computing?

You don’t need 0s and 1s to perform computations, and in some cases it’s better to avoid them.

### How AI Revolutionized Protein Science, but Didn’t End It

Three years ago, Google’s AlphaFold pulled off the biggest artificial intelligence breakthrough in science to date, accelerating molecular research and kindling deep questions about why we do science.

### How the Square Root of 2 Became a Number

Useful mathematical concepts, like the number line, can linger for millennia before they are rigorously defined.

### The S-Matrix Is the Oracle Physicists Turn To in Times of Crisis

Particle physicists in search of the next theory of reality are consulting a mathematical structure that they know will never fail: a table of possibilities known as the S-matrix.

### How the Ancient Art of Eclipse Prediction Became an Exact Science

The timing of the total eclipse on April 8, 2024, will be known to within a second, thousands of years after fearful humans first started trying to anticipate these cosmic events.

### The (Often) Overlooked Experiment That Revealed the Quantum World

A century ago, the Stern-Gerlach experiment established the truth of quantum mechanics. Now it’s being used to probe the clash of quantum theory and gravity.

### How Math Achieved Transcendence

Transcendental numbers include famous examples like e and π, but it took mathematicians centuries to understand them.

### A Plan to Address the World’s Challenges With Math

Minhyong Kim is leading a new initiative called Mathematics for Humanity that encourages mathematicians to apply their skills to solving social problems.

### The Colorful Problem That Has Long Frustrated Mathematicians

The four-color problem is simple to explain, but its complex proof continues to be both celebrated and despised.