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# history of science

## Latest Articles

### How Maxwell’s Demon Continues to Startle Scientists

The thorny thought experiment has been turned into a real experiment — one that physicists use to probe the physics of information.

### How Radio Astronomy Reveals the Universe

Radio waves, longer and less energetic than visible light, give astronomers access to some of the most obscure physics in the cosmos.

### Topology 101: The Hole Truth

The relationships among the properties of flexible shapes have fascinated mathematicians for centuries.

### The NASA Engineer Who’s a Mathematician at Heart

Christine Darden worked at NASA for 40 years, helping make supersonic planes quieter and forging a path for women to follow in her footsteps.

### How Claude Shannon Invented the Future

Today’s information age is only possible thanks to the groundbreaking work of a lone genius.

### Inside the Secret Math Society Known Simply as Nicolas Bourbaki

For almost a century, the anonymous members of Nicolas Bourbaki have written books intended as pure expressions of mathematical thought.

### How Mathematical ‘Hocus-Pocus’ Saved Particle Physics

Renormalization has become perhaps the single most important advance in theoretical physics in 50 years.

### When Math Gets Impossibly Hard

Mathematicians have long grappled with the reality that some problems just don’t have solutions.

### Social Distancing From the Stars

Professional astronomers may not point their telescopes by hand anymore, but COVID-19 has still closed observatories and impeded research.