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# Abstractions blog

## Latest Articles

### Work on Earth’s Climate and Other Complex Systems Earns Nobel Prize in Physics

Syukuro Manabe and Klaus Hasselmann have been honored for their work that led to reliable predictions of the effects of climate change. They will share the Nobel with Giorgio Parisi, who has made pioneering studies of chaotic physical systems.

### Medicine Nobel Prize Goes to Temperature and Touch Discoveries

David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian were awarded the 2021 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries of how we detect heat and touch.

### In Topology, When Are Two Shapes the Same?

As topologists seek to classify shapes, the effort hinges on how to define a manifold and what it means for two of them to be equivalent.

### ‘Impossible’ Particle Discovery Adds Key Piece to the Strong Force Puzzle

The unexpected discovery of the double-charm tetraquark has given physicists a new tool with which to hone their understanding of the strongest of nature’s fundamental forces.

### Mathematician Answers Chess Problem About Attacking Queens

The *n*-queens problem is about finding how many different ways queens can be placed on a chessboard so that none attack each other. A mathematician has now all but solved it.

### Mathematical Analysis of Fruit Fly Wings Hints at Evolution’s Limits

A painstaking study of wing morphology shows both the striking uniformity of individuals in a species and a subtle pattern of linked variations that evolution can exploit.

### How Ancient War Trickery Is Alive in Math Today

Legend says the Chinese military once used a mathematical ruse to conceal its troop numbers. The technique relates to many deep areas of modern math research.

### How Computationally Complex Is a Single Neuron?

Computational neuroscientists taught an artificial neural network to imitate a biological neuron. The result offers a new way to think about the complexity of single brain cells.

### The Complex Truth About ‘Junk DNA’

Genomes hold immense quantities of noncoding DNA. Some of it is essential for life, some seems useless, and some has its own agenda.