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# history of science

## Latest Articles

### The (Often) Overlooked Experiment That Revealed the Quantum World

A century ago, the Stern-Gerlach experiment established the truth of quantum mechanics. Now it’s being used to probe the clash of quantum theory and gravity.

### How Math Achieved Transcendence

Transcendental numbers include famous examples like e and π, but it took mathematicians centuries to understand them.

### A Plan to Address the World’s Challenges With Math

Minhyong Kim is leading a new initiative called Mathematics for Humanity that encourages mathematicians to apply their skills to solving social problems.

### The Colorful Problem That Has Long Frustrated Mathematicians

The four-color problem is simple to explain, but its complex proof continues to be both celebrated and despised.

### How to Think About Relativity

Albert Einstein’s ideas about space-time aren’t exactly intuitive, and they aren’t exactly Einstein’s, either.

### Why Mathematicians Study Knots

Far from being an abstract mathematical curiosity, knot theory has driven many findings in math and beyond.

### How Isaac Newton Discovered the Binomial Power Series

Rethinking questions and chasing patterns led Newton to find the connection between curves and infinite sums.

### The Sordid Past of the Cubic Formula

The quest to solve cubic equations led to duels, betrayals — and modern mathematics.

### How We Can Make Sense of Chaos

Dynamical systems can be chaotic and impossible to predict, but mathematicians have discovered tools to help understand them.