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# Abstractions blog

## Latest Articles

### How (Nearly) Nothing Might Solve Cosmology’s Biggest Questions

By measuring the universe’s emptiest spaces, scientists can study how matter clumps together and how fast it flies apart.

### Mathematicians Solve Long-Standing Coloring Problem

A new result shows how much of the plane can be colored by points that are never exactly one unit apart.

### Underground Cells Make ‘Dark Oxygen’ Without Light

In some deep subterranean aquifers, cells have a chemical trick for making oxygen that could sustain whole underground ecosystems.

### How to Build a Big Prime Number

A new algorithm brings together the advantages of randomness and deterministic processes to reliably construct large prime numbers.

### The Lawlessness of Large Numbers

Mathematicians can often figure out what happens as quantities grow infinitely large. What about when they are just a little big?

### Microbes Gained Photosynthesis Superpowers From a ‘Proton Pump’

New research reveals how marine microbes use an extra membrane that once had digestive functions to boost their yield from photosynthesis.

### Mathematicians Discover Novel Way to Predict Structure in Graphs

Mathematicians probe the limits of randomness in new work estimating quantities called Ramsey numbers.

### Neural Networks Need Data to Learn. Even If It’s Fake.

Real data can be hard to get, so researchers are turning to synthetic data to train their artificial intelligence systems.

### A New Experiment Casts Doubt on the Leading Theory of the Nucleus

By measuring inflated helium nuclei, physicists have challenged our best understanding of the force that binds protons and neutrons.