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# Abstractions blog

## Latest Articles

### Underground Cells Make ‘Dark Oxygen’ Without Light

In some deep subterranean aquifers, cells have a chemical trick for making oxygen that could sustain whole underground ecosystems.

### How to Build a Big Prime Number

A new algorithm brings together the advantages of randomness and deterministic processes to reliably construct large prime numbers.

### The Lawlessness of Large Numbers

Mathematicians can often figure out what happens as quantities grow infinitely large. What about when they are just a little big?

### Microbes Gained Photosynthesis Superpowers From a ‘Proton Pump’

New research reveals how marine microbes use an extra membrane that once had digestive functions to boost their yield from photosynthesis.

### Mathematicians Discover Novel Way to Predict Structure in Graphs

Mathematicians probe the limits of randomness in new work estimating quantities called Ramsey numbers.

### Neural Networks Need Data to Learn. Even If It’s Fake.

Real data can be hard to get, so researchers are turning to synthetic data to train their artificial intelligence systems.

### A New Experiment Casts Doubt on the Leading Theory of the Nucleus

By measuring inflated helium nuclei, physicists have challenged our best understanding of the force that binds protons and neutrons.

### First-Year Graduate Student Finds Paradoxical Set

No two pairs have the same sum; add three numbers together, and you can get any whole number.

### Data Compression Drives the Internet. Here’s How It Works.

One student’s desire to get out of a final exam led to the ubiquitous algorithm that shrinks data without sacrificing information.