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# Abstractions blog

## Latest Articles

### Neuron Bursts Can Mimic Famous AI Learning Strategy

A new model of learning centers on bursts of neural activity that act as teaching signals — approximating backpropagation, the algorithm behind learning in AI.

### How Wavelets Allow Researchers to Transform, and Understand, Data

Built upon the ubiquitous Fourier transform, the mathematical tools known as wavelets allow unprecedented analysis and understanding of continuous signals.

### Chemistry Nobel Prize Honors Technique for Building Molecules

Benjamin List and David MacMillan received the 2021 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their development of asymmetrical organocatalysis.

### Work on Earth’s Climate and Other Complex Systems Earns Nobel Prize in Physics

Syukuro Manabe and Klaus Hasselmann have been honored for their work that led to reliable predictions of the effects of climate change. They will share the Nobel with Giorgio Parisi, who has made pioneering studies of chaotic physical systems.

### Medicine Nobel Prize Goes to Temperature and Touch Discoveries

David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian were awarded the 2021 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries of how we detect heat and touch.

### In Topology, When Are Two Shapes the Same?

As topologists seek to classify shapes, the effort hinges on how to define a manifold and what it means for two of them to be equivalent.

### ‘Impossible’ Particle Discovery Adds Key Piece to the Strong Force Puzzle

The unexpected discovery of the double-charm tetraquark has given physicists a new tool with which to hone their understanding of the strongest of nature’s fundamental forces.

### Mathematician Answers Chess Problem About Attacking Queens

The *n*-queens problem is about finding how many different ways queens can be placed on a chessboard so that none attack each other. A mathematician has now all but solved it.

### Mathematical Analysis of Fruit Fly Wings Hints at Evolution’s Limits

A painstaking study of wing morphology shows both the striking uniformity of individuals in a species and a subtle pattern of linked variations that evolution can exploit.